In astronomical circles, it is pretty much official. The Moon was created when a body about the size of Mars slammed into the newborn Earth. In the cataclysm, the molten iron core of the impacting body sank to the Earth's core while its molten mantle splashed out into space to form a ring of debris. This congealed into the Moon.
The Moon, originally about 20 times closer to the Earth, gradually moved out to its current location. This "Big Splash" picture, proposed by William Hartmann, Al Cameron and their colleagues in 1975, is very well-received. For instance, it explains why the Moon contains essentially no iron.
Unfortunately, it has a big problem. It concerns the body that collided with the Earth. "Where did it come from?" says Richard Gott of Princeton University in New Jersey. "The clues suggest a seemingly impossible location."
One such clue comes from comparing the composition of the Earth and Moon. Cosmologists are pretty sure that the disc of swirling debris from which the planets congealed had a different composition at different distances from the newborn Sun.
The Mars-mass body would, therefore, not have had the same make- up as the Earth. In the impact, the Earth and Moon would have been contaminated by different amounts of this material, which means, when we examine terrestrial and lunar rocks, we should see marked differences in composition. "The bizarre thing is, we don't," says Gott.
Take oxygen. It comes in three types - oxygen-16 and two heavier and rarer types, oxygen-17 and oxygen-18. The relative proportions of these are like a chemical "fingerprint". The prediction of the Big Splash scenario is that the Earth's oxygen fingerprint will be quite different from the Moon's. But it isn't. It's pretty much identical.
The oxygen evidence forces the conclusion that the body that hit the Earth and created the Moon formed at exactly the same distance from the Sun as the Earth. This is also indicated by computer simulations of the birth of the Moon, which show that the impactor came in at relatively low speed, characteristic of bodies in the Earth's vicinity. "But if the impactor formed at the same distance from the Sun as the Earth, there is a big problem understanding how it ever managed to grow as big as Mars," says Gott.
The accepted theory of the birth of the planets is that they gradually "accreted" from debris pulled in by their gravity. The bigger they got, the stronger was their gravity and the more matter they pulled in. Since it is a process in which the rich get richer and the poor poorer, the impactor should have been gobbled up by the proto-Earth long before it reached the mass of Mars. So, why wasn't it?24 Hours of Chaos: The Day The Moon Was Made By Robert Roy BrittSenior Science Writerposted: 02:00 pm ET15 August 2001For 25 years, scientists have pondered a theory that the Moon was created when an object the size of Mars crashed into Earth less than 100 million years after the Sun was born, some 4.6 billion years ago. The general idea has been run through the paces and massaged into shape and is now the favored explanation.
Gott set out to solve the puzzle with Princeton colleague Edward Belbruno. They began by asking: is there some special location at the Earth's distance from the Sun where a body could grow to the mass of Mars? Immediately, they realised there is.
In fact, there are two places. These are the "Lagrange- 4" and "Lagrange-5" points, whose existence was first suggested by the French mathematician Joseph Louis Lagrange in 1772. One lags 60 degrees behind the Earth as it orbits the Sun and the other precedes the Earth in its orbit by the same amount.
At the Lagrange points, all the forces in the Sun-Earth system miraculously balance each other. What's more, any slow-moving debris that happens to find its way there becomes hopelessly trapped in a kind of interplanetary Sargasso Sea.
Gott and Belbruno say the Lagrange points are places where matter would naturally have accumulated and where a body could have grown in peace without being affected by the fast-growing Earth. Eventually, when it had reached the mass of Mars, the gravity of other embryonic planets in the Solar System, such as Jupiter, would have tugged it repeatedly, perhaps over millions of years, until it was ejected from the Lagrange point.
In computer simulations, Gott and Belbruno have followed the subsequent course of events. They find nothing can prevent the inevitable - a titanic collision with the Earth. Everything appears to fit. The impactor comes in on a low-velocity orbit, delivering a glancing blow on the Earth. Gott and Belbruno's simulations show that, in a quarter of encounters, the end result is a body exactly like the Moon.
If Gott and Belbruno are right, the Earth had once had a planetary which shared its orbit round the Sun. "It's a clever idea which would solve some obvious problems," says Carl Murray of Queen Mary University in London. But he thinks work still needs to be done to prove it.
The most interesting consequence of Gott and Belbruno's scenario is its implications for our prospects of finding extraterrestrial life. The Earth has the biggest moon compared to its size of any planet in the Solar System (Pluto also has a big moon but is rarely considered a full-blown planet nowadays). And a giant moon has been important for the evolution of life.
The Earth, for instance, spins around its axis like a top. And, in common with all tops, it has a tendency to wobble wildly. Such wobbles would cause severe changes in the Earth's climate, with grave consequences for life. But every time the Earth tips too far over on its axis, the Moon's gravity rights it. The Moon has, therefore, ensured a relatively stable climate for the evolution of life over billions of years.
And this is not the only way that the Moon has been important in the evolution of life. The tides created by the Moon, which are three times bigger than those created by the Sun, leave large areas of the ocean margins high and dry twice a day.
Hundreds of millions of years ago, this enabled marine creatures to gradually adapt to arid conditions - the first step in the conquest of the land. But the Moon's key importance in the evolution of life has a depressing consequence for our prospects of finding ET life. The reason is that the kind of collision needed to create a big moon has always seemed an extremely unlikely event.
Gott and Belbruno don't see it like that. They say that the formation of a large Mars-mass body at one of the Lagrange points of other planetary systems may not be that uncommon at all. And, since their simulations show a big moon created in a quarter of cases, the formation of a big moon may be more likely than anyone expected. They even speculate that there may exist planetary systems in the Galaxy, where two or more terrestrial planets have big moons.
Is there any way of proving Gott and Belbruno's scenario? At first sight, it would appear to be difficult. After all, the Moon was formed in a tremendously violent manner and the impactor was utterly destroyed. It would be highly unlikely that any unprocessed material from that time could have survived to the present day. "But perhaps not impossible," says Gott.
Gott and Belbruno point to an asteroid, or chunk of interplanetary rubble, discovered in 2002. "2002 AA29" is barely the size of a football pitch and is currently in a orbit which periodically brings it within a mere 5.8 million kilometres of the Earth. The peculiar orbit is very similar to the one the impactor that created the Moon would have been in 4.55 billion years ago. "You have to ask yourself, how did 2002 AA29 get in that orbit?" says Belbruno.
An intriguing possibility is that it might have been associated with Lagrange-4 or Lagrange-5 in the distant past and at some point was kicked out. If so, 2002 AA29 may carry the imprint of the material from which the impactor and the Earth were formed. Bizarrely, 2002 AA29 has been picked out by planetary physicists as an asteroid that would be relatively easy for a space probe to visit.
Gott and Belbruno suggest that a mission to return a sample would be most interesting. If it found iron and material with the same oxygen fingerprint as the Earth and Moon, it would support the Lagrange point scenario. If it contained no iron, it could be a bit of the splashed out material from the impact that formed the Moon. "Either way, we think 2002 AA29 could tell us about the origin of the Earth and Moon," says Gott. "It may be the most valuable chunk of rock in the Solar System."
Marcus Chown is the author of `The Universe Next Door: Twelve Mind-Blowing Ideas from the Cutting Edge of Science', published by Headline, pounds 7.99
Source: Independent, The; London (UK)
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Moons like Earth's are few and far between
Moons created from massive collisions the way Earth's may have been, are a rarity in the universe, suggests a new study.
Our Moon probably formed when a Mars-sized object slammed into the newly-formed Earth, spraying debris into space. Some of this then coalesced to form our Moon.
Earth appears to be the only planet in our solar system with a moon that formed in this way. Other moons are thought to be objects that were captured by their planet's gravity or that formed simultaneously with their planet.
There is some evidence that collisions between rocky bodies happen in other solar systems.
On 14 November, Joseph Rhee of the University of California in Los Angeles, US, and his team of astronomers said they had found large quantities of warm dust around a star in the Pleiades cluster, similar conditions existed in our solar system when the Moon formed and so seem a pre-requisite for the collisions needed for moon-making. This dust could have arisen from just such a collision. Until now, however, it has been unclear how common such collisions are.
Now, a survey of 400 stars suggests collisions big enough to produce something like Earth's Moon happen in only one out of every 10 to 20 solar systems.
Nadya Gorlova of the University of Florida in Gainesville, US, led a study that used the infrared Spitzer Space Telescope to look for signs of dust around stars in a young cluster called NGC 2547 about 1400 light years from Earth.
The cluster is ideal for addressing the question, because its member stars are about 30 million years old. The era when big collisions are thought to be common in solar systems lasts from about 10 to 50 million years after a star is born.
'Teenage' solar system
The team searched for signs of dust in the infrared light spectrum of the stars in the cluster. They found just one star with enough surrounding dust to suggest a moon-forming collision may have occurred there.
Taking into account the fact that the dust from such collisions is only briefly observable because it is quickly blown out of the system, the astronomers calculate that these collisions must occur in about 5 to 10% of solar systems.
Moons like Earth's may be even more rare than this suggests, because not every collision between objects of the appropriate size will necessarily produce a moon, says team member George Rieke of the University of Arizona in Tucson, US.
The survey provides an insight into what our own solar system may have been like in its early stages, says Marc Kuchner of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, US.
"This kind of survey tells us what the solar system might have been like as a 'teenager' – almost grown up but still a little bit wild," he told New Scientist.
Journal reference: Astrophysical Journal, (DOI: 10.1086/521671)
Astronomers Say Moons Like Ours Are Uncommon
ScienceDaily (Nov. 22, 2007) — The next time you take a moonlit stroll, or admire a full, bright-white moon looming in the night sky, you might count yourself lucky. New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope suggest that moons like Earth’s – that formed out of tremendous collisions – are uncommon in the universe, arising at most in only five to 10 percent of planetary systems.
"When a moon forms from a violent collision, dust should be blasted everywhere," said Nadya Gorlova of the University of Florida, Gainesville, lead author of a new study appearing Nov. 20 in the Astrophysical Journal. "If there were lots of moons forming, we would have seen dust around lots of stars – but we didn't."
It's hard to imagine Earth without a moon. Our familiar white orb has long been the subject of art, myth and poetry. Wolves howl at it, and humans have left footprints in its soil. Life itself might have evolved from the ocean to land thanks to tides induced by the moon's gravity.
Scientists believe the moon arose about 30 million to 50 million years after our sun was born, and after our rocky planets had begun to take shape. A body as big as Mars is thought to have smacked into our infant Earth, breaking off a piece of its mantle. Some of the resulting debris fell into orbit around Earth, eventually coalescing into the moon we see today. The other moons in our solar system either formed simultaneously with their planet or were captured by their planet's gravity.
Gorlova and her colleagues looked for the dusty signs of similar smash-ups around 400 stars that are all about 30 million years old – roughly the age of our sun when Earth's moon formed. They found that only one out of the 400 stars is immersed in the telltale dust. Taking into consideration the amount of time the dust should stick around, and the age range at which moon-forming collisions can occur, the scientists then calculated the probability of a solar system making a moon like Earth's to be at most five to 10 percent.
"We don't know that the collision we witnessed around the one star is definitely going to produce a moon, so moon-forming events could be much less frequent than our calculation suggests," said George Rieke of the University of Arizona, Tucson, a co-author of the study.
In addition, the observations tell astronomers that the planet-building process itself winds down by 30 million years after a star is born. Like our moon, rocky planets are built up through messy collisions that spray dust all around. Current thinking holds that this process lasts from about ten million to 50 million years after a star forms. The fact that Gorlova and her team found only one star out of 400 with collision-generated dust indicates that the 30-million-year-old stars in the study have, for the most part, finished making their planets.
"Astronomers have observed young stars with dust swirling around them for more than 20 years now," said Gorlova. "But those stars are usually so young that their dust could be left over from the planet-formation process. The star we have found is older, at the same age our sun was when it had finished making planets and the Earth-moon system had just formed in a collision."
For moon lovers, the news isn't all bad. For one thing, moons can form in different ways. And, even though the majority of rocky planets in the universe might not have moons like Earth's, astronomers believe there are billions of rocky planets out there. Five to 10 percent of billions is still a lot of moons.
Other authors of the paper include: Zoltan Balog, James Muzerolle, Kate Y. L. Su and Erick T. Young of the University of Arizona, and Valentin D. Ivanov of the European Southern Observatory, Chile.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology, also in Pasadena. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.
Adapted from materials provided by University Of Arizona.
University Of Arizona (2007, November 22). Astronomers Say Moons Like Ours Are Uncommon. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 6, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2007/11/071121184530.htm
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